Learning Continuum of Literacy (Version 8.4)

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This element is about expressive language and involves students composing different types of texts for a range of purposes as an integral part of learning in all curriculum areas.

These texts include spoken, written, visual and multimodal texts that explore, communicate and analyse information, ideas and issues in the learning areas. Students create formal and informal texts as part of classroom learning experiences including group and class discussions, talk that explores and investigates learning area topics, and formal and informal presentations and debates. In developing and acting with literacy, students:

  • compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • use language to interact with others
  • deliver presentations.

The element of Composing texts can apply to students at any point in their schooling. The beginning of the learning sequence for this element has been extended by four extra levels (Levels 1a to 1d) to describe in particular the development of communication skills. The descriptions for Composing texts at these levels apply across the elements of Text knowledge, Grammar knowledge, Word knowledge and Visual knowledge.

The following areas of knowledge apply to both processes.

Level 1a


Compose texts

use behaviours that are not intentionally directed at another person to:

  • refuse or reject
  • reflect a preference or desire
  • reflect state of wellbeing, for example contentment, joy, worry, pain
  • reflect a physical state, for example hot, cold, nausea

Level 1b


Compose texts

use informal behaviours to intentionally communicate a single message consistently in familiar environments with familiar people, such as to:

  • refuse or reject
  • express a preference
  • request the continuation of an activity
  • request something new
  • request more
  • request attention

Level 1c


Compose texts

use conventional behaviours and/or concrete symbols to intentionally communicate more than one idea at a time consistently across an increasing range of environments with familiar and unfamiliar people, such as to:

  • refuse or reject
  • request items, people or events present at the time
  • create texts, for example to comment on a recent event, story or shared experience