Pathways by which chemical substances move through the biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.
The mass of living matter (microbial, plant and animal) in a given environmental area.
A representation of the total biomass at each trophic level within a system.
Interaction between the biotic and abiotic elements of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
Policy and regulatory frameworks designed to safeguard against biological threats to environments, organisms and human health; biosecurity measures aim to restrict entry of disease causing agents, genetically modified species, or invasive alien species or genotypes.
The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for human purposes.