Glossary (Version 8.4)

A distinctive way of pronouncing a language, usually associated with a particular country, region, or social class (for example, the American accent is unmistakable).

A word class that describes, identifies or quantifies a noun or a pronoun.

Different types of adjectives include:

  • number or quantity adjectives (for example, ‘twelve’, ‘several’)
  • possessive adjectives (for example, ‘my’, ‘his’)
  • descriptive adjectives (for example, ‘beautiful’, ‘ancient’)
  • comparative adjectives (for example, ‘shorter,’ ‘more difficult’)
  • classifying adjectives (for example, ‘wooden’ (box), ‘passenger’ (vehicle).

A word class that may modify a verb (for example, ‘beautifully’ in ‘she sings beautifully’), an adjective (for example, ‘really’ in ‘he is really interesting’) or another adverb (for example, ‘very’ in ‘she walks very slowly’). In English many adverbs have an -ly ending.

A word or group of words that modifies or contributes additional, but non-essential, information about a sentence or a verb.

Adverbials are classified on the basis of the kind of meaning involved including:

  • time (for example, ‘yesterday’ in ‘I spoke with him yesterday’)
  • duration (for example, ‘for several years’ in ‘they have lived together for several years’)
  • frequency (for example, ‘three times a year’ in ‘the committee meets three times a year’)
  • place (for example, ‘in Brisbane’ in ‘we met in Brisbane’)
  • manner (for example, ‘very aggressively’ in ‘he played very aggressively’)
  • degree (for example, ‘very deeply’ in ‘he loves her very deeply’)
  • reason (for example, ‘because of the price’ in ‘we rejected it because of the price’)
  • purpose (for example, ‘to avoid embarrassing you’ in ‘I stayed away to avoid embarrassing you’)
  • condition (for example, ‘if I can’ in ‘I’ll help you if I can’)
  • concession (for example, ‘although she was unwell’ in ‘she joined in although she was unwell’).

Adverbials usually have the form of:

  • adverb group: a group/phrase includes an adverb as the head word and answers questions such as 'how?' or 'where?' or 'when?' (for example, ‘it ran extremely quickly’, ‘it ran quicker than a cheetah)
  • a prepositional phrase (for example, ‘in the evening’ in ‘she'll be arriving in the evening’)
  • a noun group/phrase (for example, ‘this morning’ in ‘I finished it this morning’)
  • a subordinate clause (for example, ‘because he had an assignment to finish’ in ‘He didn’t go out because he had an assignment to finish’). In some schools of linguistics, such subordinate clauses are treated as dependent on, rather than embedded in, the main clause.

Relates to a sense of beauty or an appreciation of artistic expression. The selection of texts that are recognised as having aesthetic or artistic value is an important focus of the literature strand.

A recurrence of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of words in close succession (for example, ‘ripe, red raspberry’).

A brief hint or reference to a person, event, idea or work of art through a passing comment, where a composer expects a reader to have the knowledge to recognise the allusion and grasp its importance in the text (for example, ‘chocolate was her Achilles’ heel’).

A comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification.

A word opposite in meaning to another (for example, ‘empty’ is an antonym for ‘full’; ‘cold’ is an antonym for ‘hot’).

A punctuation mark used to indicate either possession or omission of letters and numbers.

The two main uses of apostrophes are:

  • apostrophe of possession indicates that a noun owns something (for example, ‘the student’s work’, ‘David’s phone’). Plural nouns that end with -s have an apostrophe added after the -s (for example, ‘the teachers’ staff room’).
  • apostrophe of contraction replaces omitted letters in a word (for example, ‘isn’t’, ‘don’t’, ‘he’s’).

When one noun group/phrase immediately follows another with the same reference, they are said to be in apposition (for example, ‘our neighbour, Mr Grasso ...’, ‘Canberra, the capital of Australia, ...’).

An act of discerning quality and value of literary texts.

Taking a text or a part of a text, like an image, character or technique, from one context and placing it in another. This may be a technique used to give new insights into the original text (for example, a film that appropriates the plot or characters of an earlier novel, or a version of a traditional text given an unconventional perspective as in fairy tales retold in a modern context).

An intended group of readers, listeners or viewers that a writer, designer, filmmaker or speaker is addressing.

A composer or originator of a work (for example, a novel, film, website, speech, essay, autobiography).