Features of language that support meaning (for example, sentence structure, noun group/phrase, vocabulary, punctuation, figurative language). Choices in language features and text structures together define a type of text and shape its meaning. These choices vary according to the purpose of a text, its subject matter, audience and mode or medium of production.

An arrangement of identifiable repeated or corresponding elements in a text. These include patterns of repetition or similarity (for example, a repeated use of verbs at the beginning of each step in a recipe, or a repetition of a chorus after each verse in a song). The patterns may alternate (for example, a call and response pattern of some games, or a to-and-fro of a dialogue). Other patterns may contrast (for example, opposing viewpoints in a discussion, or contrasting patterns of imagery in a poem). Language patterns of a text contribute to the distinctive nature of its overall organisation and shape its meaning.

A spatial arrangement of print and graphics on a page or screen including size of font, positioning of illustrations, inclusion of captions, labels, headings, bullet points, borders and text boxes.

A use of word associations to create links in texts. Links can be made through the use of repetition of words, synonyms, antonyms and words that are related such as by class and subclass.

To use the sense of hearing as well as a range of active behaviours to comprehend information received through gesture, body language and other sensory systems.