A group of (more or less) fixed words having a meaning not deducible from individual words. Idioms are typically informal expressions used by particular social groups and need to be explained as one unit (for example, ‘I am over the moon’, ‘on thin ice’, ‘a fish out of water’, ‘fed up to the back teeth’).

A use of figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that they appeal to the senses of the reader or viewer.

Associations or connections between one text and other texts. Intertextual references can be more or less explicit and self-conscious. They can take the form of direct quotation, parody, allusion or structural borrowing.