Glossary (Version 8.4)

Physical activities designed to challenge students physiologically, behaviourally and socially in diverse contexts and environments. These activities include: initiative games, movement challenges (as individuals and in teams or groups), recreational activities in natural and outdoor settings and navigational challenges. With access to specialised facilities and equipment, and relevant teacher expertise, these activities can also include: bushwalking, camping, biathlon and triathlon, martial arts, rock climbing, canoeing and kayaking, cycling (mountain biking, BMX, road and track cycling), surfing, skiing (snow or water) and swimming for performance (with a focus on technique). These activities can give students opportunities to assess hazards and manage risk.

Change is about something or someone becoming different. It is situational and in HPE refers to a range of circumstances such as different stages in a young person’s life, including puberty and adolescence; moving from primary school to secondary school on a different site; or moving between different cultures defined by different behavioural expectations, such as moving between home and school for an EAL/D student, or a student caring for a parent with a disability or mental illness.

To convey and listen to specific information, knowledge, understanding, processes, skills, opinions, beliefs, perspectives, needs and emotions to and from others.

A group of people linked by a common social structure and sense of belonging. This may be based on location, gender, interests, cultural background or political or religious beliefs. It may also refer to a virtual community.

Focuses on work within defined communities to maintain and improve the health and wellbeing of all people in that community through collective action.

To observe or note how things are similar or different.

To bring together a sequence of movements, concepts or words.

A range of factors that can influence health, safety, wellbeing and participation in physical activity. These factors include personal, social, cultural, economic and political factors that exist in differing ways and have varying impacts across population groups.

An abbreviation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CPR is an emergency procedure in which a heart and lungs are made to work by manually compressing the chest overlying the heart and forcing air into the lungs.

To invent or design a movement, movement sequence, plan or idea.

A movement that evolves from a student’s own thoughts, experiences, ideas and imagination in response to stimuli in dance, games, sport and adventure activities.

To question the social, cultural and political factors that influence health and wellbeing. This involves critical analysis and critical evaluation of health and physical activity knowledge to make informed judgements and take appropriate individual and collective action. Students explore matters such as inclusiveness, power inequalities, assumptions, diversity and social justice and develop strategies to improve their own and others health and wellbeing.

To analyse an issue, information or data to form a judgement. It can involve asking questions, identifying problems and solutions, applying knowledge, stating an argument and supporting it with evidence, or making comparisons and evaluating. In Health and Physical Education it could include:

  • exploring and experimenting with different offensive and defensive strategies in games and sports to determine an agreed game plan
  • investigating different forms of skill practice to determine the most effective for a given skill
  • identifying a key issue linked to the ethical use of mobile technologies in school, at home and in social situations, and developing critical questions to actively seek and propose solutions
  • investigating the physical, social and psychological impact of drugs such as energy drinks on young people’s health and wellbeing
  • investigating and challenging stereotypes about and advocating for young people’s involvement in community actions.

To appraise an issue or information to form a critical judgement. It involves presenting and defending opinions about information; making informed judgements or decisions about the worth, validity and reliability of opinions, information, ideas and knowledge. In health and physical education it could involve:

  • critically evaluating established guidelines and procedures, such as the Australian Dietary Guidelines or guidelines to address sedentary behaviour, to suggest ways to accommodate different cultural patters of eating and healthy eating options for inclusion on the school canteen menu, or ways to increase and promote physical activity at school
  • evaluating survey data gathered from students and making suggestions on how to address an identified issue within the school, such as safety in the playground or protocols for dealing with bullying and harassment
  • scrutinising the equity of a policy or program to determine whether all individuals and groups are able to participate equally.

Shared stories, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours that give a group or individual a sense of who they are and help them make sense of the world in which they live. Culture is a shared system but inherently diverse – there can be individual and group differences within cultures. Everyone has culture – it is a lens through which we see the world.