A ‘socio-dynamic’ term which concerns self-delineated worth that comes from knowing one’s status. Relates to concepts such as reputation, self-respect, honour and prestige. A key element of social relations in Chinese, Japanese and many other cultures.

A sound or word used in spoken conversation to signal a pause, hesitation or unfinished contribution. For example, I went to the then I caught a train... Frequent use of fillers characterises early stages of second language (L2) development, but proficient speakers and first language (L1) speakers also use them as an opportunity to reflect or recast.

An ability to produce spoken or written language with appropriate phrasing, rhythm and pace. It involves the smooth flow of language, lack of hesitation or undue pausing and characterises the largely accurate use and automatisation of the target language.

Activities designed to rehearse, practise, control and demonstrate particular language structures, forms or features. For example, drills, rehearsed role plays/dialogues, games and songs, set sequences of language patterns.

Words or expressions which are commonly used in fixed patterns and learned as such without grammatical analysis. For example, Once upon a time (story-starter); G’day, how are you going?(greeting in Australian English).

A way in which elements of text are arranged to create a specific interpretation of the whole.