Support provided to assist the learning process or to complete a learning task. Scaffolded language support involves using the target language at a level slightly beyond learners’ current level of performance, and involves incremental increasing and decreasing of assistance. Task support provides assistance to perform just beyond what learners can currently do unassisted, to progress to being able to do it independently. Scaffolding includes modelling and structuring input in ways that provide additional cues or interactive questioning to activate existing knowledge, probe existing conceptions or cue noticing and reflecting.

A text processing strategy adopted to search for specific words, ideas or information in a text without reading every word. For example, looking for a word in the dictionary or a name in a phone directory. Scanning involves moving the eyes quickly down the text looking for specific words and phrases to gain a quick overall impression/to get the gist.

A writing system in which characters or symbols represent components of language (letters, syllables, words).

Knowledge gained at a meaning rather than a decoding level. This involves understanding the relationship between signifiers (words, phrases, symbols, signs) and the meanings they represent. Semantic information is supported through reference to prior knowledge, cultural connotations and contextual considerations.

A text processing strategy aimed at gaining information quickly without focusing on every word.

Convey meaning and communicate with purpose. Some students participate in speaking activities using communication systems and assistive technologies to communicate wants, and needs, and to comment about the world

A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing

An emphasis in pronunciation that is placed on a particular syllable of a word; for example, she will conduct the orchestra; her conduct is exemplary.

A meaningful element added after the root of a word to change its meaning (for example, to show its tense : –ed in passed. Common suffixes in English include –ing; –ed; ness; –less; –able).

Occurring or existing at the same time.

An ordering of sentence elements such as words, group/phrases and clauses. In some education settings, the terms syntax and grammar are used interchangeably.