Four major language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Spoken, print, graphic, or electronic communications created for a public audience. They often involve numerous people in their construction and are usually shaped by the technology used in their production. Media texts studied in different languages can be found in newspapers, magazines and on television, film, radio, computer software and the internet.

To move between different linguistic and cultural systems, referencing own first language(s)/culture(s) while learning to use and to understand those of the target language. This movement involves:

  • noticing, interpreting, responding sensitively and flexibly
  • conveying culturally-shaped ideas, values, experience to others
  • exploring how ideas and experiences are represented and conveyed in different languages and cultures
  • considering similarities, overlaps, collisions and adjustments
  • developing the capacity to communicate and represent different perspectives and interpretations.

Mediating operates in two distinctive ways:

  • in practices such as interpreting and translating, with attention to what can happen in these processes in terms of ‘losing’ or ‘gaining’ meaning
  • as the element of the learning experience, which involves noticing, responding, comparing and explaining differences in expression and perspective.

Resources used in the production and transmission of texts, including tools and materials used (for example, digital text and the computer, writing and the pen or the keyboard).

A vocabulary used to discuss language conventions and use ( for example, language used to talk about grammatical terms such as sentence, clause, conjunction; or about the social and cultural nature of language, such as face, reciprocating, register.)

Memorising information by use of an aid such as a pattern, rhyme, acronym, visual image.

A verb attached to another verb to express a degree of probability (for example, I might come home) or a degree of obligation (for example, You must give it to me,You are to leave now).

Various processes of communication: listening, speaking, reading/viewing, signing and writing/creating. Modes are also used to refer to the semiotic (meaning making) resources associated with these communicative processes, such as sound, print, image and gesture.

The smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. Morphemes are not necessarily the same as either words or syllables. The word cat has one morpheme while the word cats has two morphemes: cat for the animal and s to indicate that there is more than one. Similarly, like has one morpheme while dislike has two: like to describe appreciation and dis to indicate the opposite. The process of identifying morphemes assists comprehension, vocabulary building and spelling.

Principles of word formation and inflection, especially with respect to constituent morphemes.

A text which involves two or more communication modes; for example, the combining of print, image and spoken text in film or computer presentations.