Additional elements of spoken communication which are integrated with vocal (voice) and verbal (words) elements, and contribute significantly to communication and meaning-making. For example, voice quality, volume and pacing, facial expressions, gestures, posture and body movement.

A study of paralanguage elements of expression.

A combination of conceptual knowledge, practical skills and reflective capabilities which constitute the ‘art and science’ of teaching.

A use of the language in real situations, putting language knowledge into practice; it involves accuracy, fluency and complexity.

The smallest meaningful unit in the sound system of a language. For example, the word is has two phonemes: /i/ and /s/; ship has three phonemes: /sh/, /i/, /p/. A phoneme usually has several manifestations dependent on varying phonological contexts. For example, the p in pin and spin differs slightly in pronunciation but is regarded as being the same phoneme; that is, as having the same functional meaning within each word.

A relationship between letters or characters and the sounds they make when pronounced. L2 learning involves developing phonic awareness and proficiency.

Understanding that every spoken word is composed of small units of sound, identifying relationships between letters and sounds when listening, reading and spelling. It includes understandings about words, rhyme and syllables.

A study of how context affects communication; for example, in relation to the status of participants, the situation in which the communication is happening, or the intention of the speaker.

An informed presumption about something that might happen. Predicting at text level can include working out what a text might contain by looking at the cover, or working out what might happen next in a narrative. Predicting at sentence level includes identifying what word is likely to come next in a sentence.

A meaningful element (morpheme) added before the main part of a word to change its meaning. For example, unhappy.

A part of speech that precede a noun, noun phrase phrase or pronoun, thereby describing relationships in a sentence in respect to:

  • space/direction (below, in, on, to, under ‒ for example, she sat on the table).
  • time (after, before, since ‒ for example, Í will go to the beach after lunch).
  • those that do not relate to space or time (of, besides, except, despite ‒ for example, he ate all the beans except the purple ones)

Prepositions usually combine with a noun group or phrase to form a prepositional phrase. For example, in the office, besides these two articles.

One of the two aspects of communication through language (see receptive language) involving the ability to express, articulate and produce utterances or texts in the target language.

A part of speech that refers to nouns, or substituting for them, within and across sentences. For example, Ahmad chose a chocolate cake. He ate it that evening (where he and it are personal pronouns; and that is a demonstrative pronoun).

A manner in which a syllable is uttered.

Patterns of rhythm, tempo, stress, pitch and intonation used in language; for example, in poetry or public speaking.

A use of space, posture and touch as elements of non-verbal communication.

Learning which results from authentic language experiences that involve real purpose and achievable outcomes.