Science

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Rationale

Science provides an empirical way of answering interesting and important questions about the biological, physical and technological world. The knowledge it produces has proved to be a reliable basis for action in our personal, social and economic lives.

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Aims

The Australian Curriculum: Science aims to ensure that students develop:

an interest in science as a means of expanding their curiosity and willingness to explore, ask questions about and speculate on the changing world in which they live.

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Key ideas

In the Australian Curriculum: Science, there are six key ideas that represent key aspects of a scientific view of the world and bridge knowledge and understanding across the disciplines of science, as shown Figure 1 below. These are embedded within each year level description and guide the teaching/learning emphasis for the relevant year level.

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Structure

The three interrelated strands of science
The Australian Curriculum: Science has three interrelated strands: science understanding, science as a human endeavour and science inquiry skills.

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Content and achievement sequences

Resources and support materials for the Australian Curriculum: Science.

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Glossary

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Year 7

Year 7 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts.

In Year 7, students explore the diversity of life on Earth and continue to develop their understanding of the role of classification in ordering and organising information. They use and develop models such as food chains, food webs and the water cycle to represent and analyse the flow of energy and matter through ecosystems and explore the impact of changing components within these systems. They consider the interaction between multiple forces when explaining changes in an object’s motion. They explore the notion of renewable and non-renewable resources and consider how this classification depends on the timescale considered. They investigate relationships in the Earth-sun-moon system and use models to predict and explain events. Students make accurate measurements and control variables to analyse relationships between system components. They explore and explain these relationships through appropriate representations and consider the role of science in decision making processes.


Year 7 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Classification helps organise the diverse group of organisms (ACSSU111 - Scootle )
  • investigating classification systems used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and how they differ with respect to approach and purpose from those used by contemporary science (OI.3, OI.5)

  • considering the reasons for classifying such as identification and communication
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • grouping a variety of organisms on the basis of similarities and differences in particular features
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • considering how biological classifications have changed over time
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • classifying using hierarchical systems such as kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • using scientific conventions for naming species
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • using provided keys to identify organisms surveyed in a local habitat
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Interactions between organisms, including the effects of human activities can be represented by food chains and food webs (ACSSU112 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • investigating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' responses to the disruptive interactions of invasive species and their effect on important food webs that many communities are a part of, and depend on, for produce and medicine (OI.2, OI.5, OI.6)

  • using food chains to show feeding relationships in a habitat
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • constructing and interpreting food webs to show relationships between organisms in an environment
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • classifying organisms of an environment according to their position in a food chain
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising the role of microorganisms within food chains and food webs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating the effect of human activity on local habitats, such as deforestation, agriculture or the introduction of new species
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how living things can cause changes to their environment and impact other living things, such as the effect of cane toads
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • researching specific examples of human activity, such as the effects of palm oil production in Sumatra and Borneo

    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Chemical sciences

Mixtures, including solutions, contain a combination of pure substances that can be separated using a range of techniques (ACSSU113 - Scootle )
  • investigating separation techniques used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, such as hand picking, sieving, winnowing, yandying, filtering, cold-pressing and steam distilling (OI.5)

  • recognising the differences between pure substances and mixtures and identifying examples of each
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying the solvent and solute in solutions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating and using a range of physical separation techniques such as filtration, decantation, evaporation, crystallisation, chromatography and distillation
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • exploring and comparing separation methods used in the home
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Earth and space sciences

Predictable phenomena on Earth, including seasons and eclipses, are caused by the relative positions of the sun, Earth and the moon (ACSSU115 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Using spatial reasoning
  • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

Using measurement
  • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • researching knowledges held by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples regarding the phases of the moon and the connection between the lunar cycle and ocean tides (OI.3, OI.5)

  • researching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' oral traditions and cultural recordings of solar and lunar eclipses and investigating similarities and differences with contemporary understandings of such phenomena (OI.3, OI.9)

  • Investigating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ calendars and how they are used to predict seasonal changes (OI.3, OI.5)

  • investigating natural phenomena such as lunar and solar eclipses, seasons and phases of the moon

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • comparing times for the rotation of Earth, the sun and moon, and comparing the times for the orbits of Earth and the moon
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • modelling the relative movements of the Earth, sun and moon and how natural phenomena such as solar and lunar eclipses and phases of the moon occur
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • explaining why different regions of the Earth experience different seasonal conditions
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Some of Earth’s resources are renewable, including water that cycles through the environment, but others are non-renewable (ACSSU116 - Scootle )
  • exploring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ connections with, and valuing of, water and water resource management (OI.2, OI.3)

  • considering what is meant by the term ‘renewable’ in relation to the Earth’s resources
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering timescales for regeneration of resources
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

  • comparing renewable and non-renewable energy sources, including how they are used in a range of situations
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • considering the water cycle in terms of changes of state of water
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • investigating factors that influence the water cycle in nature
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how human management of water impacts on the water cycle
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action
    • Apply logic and reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

Physical sciences

Change to an object’s motion is caused by unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravitational attraction, acting on the object (ACSSU117 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the effect of forces through the application of simple machines, such as the bow and arrows used by Torres Strait Islander Peoples or the spear throwers used by Aboriginal Peoples (OI.5, OI.7)

  • investigating the effects of applying different forces to familiar objects
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating common situations where forces are balanced, such as stationary objects, and unbalanced, such as falling objects
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating a simple machine such as lever or pulley system
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • exploring how gravity affects objects on the surface of Earth
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering how gravity keeps planets in orbit around the sun
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Nature and development of science

Scientific knowledge has changed peoples’ understanding of the world and is refined as new evidence becomes available (ACSHE119 - Scootle )
  • investigating the contributions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples' knowledge in the identification of medicinal and endemic plants (OI.9)

  • investigating how advances in telescopes and space probes have provided new evidence about space
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • researching different ideas used in the development of models of the solar system developed by scientists such as Copernicus, Khayyám and Galileo
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

  • researching developments in the understanding of astronomy, such as the predictions of eclipses and the calculation of the length of the solar year by Al‑Battani in the tenth century
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

Science knowledge can develop through collaboration across the disciplines of science and the contributions of people from a range of cultures (ACSHE223 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Work collaboratively

  • investigating how land management practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples informs sustainable management of the environment to protect biodiversity (OI.5, OI.9)

  • considering how water use and management relies on knowledge from different areas of science, and involves the application of technology
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying the contributions of Australian scientists to the study of human impact on environments and to local environmental management projects
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • studying transnational collaborative research in the Antarctic
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Use and influence of science

Solutions to contemporary issues that are found using science and technology, may impact on other areas of society and may involve ethical considerations (ACSHE120 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • researching the development of commercial products that are founded on the traditional knowledge and practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and discussing related ethical considerations associated with biopiracy and intellectual property rights (OI.9)

  • relating regulations about wearing seatbelts or safety helmets to knowledge of forces and motion
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • considering issues relating to the use and management of water within a community
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • considering decisions made in relation to the recycling of greywater and blackwater
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • considering how human activity in the community can have positive and negative effects on the sustainability of ecosystems
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

  • investigating ways to control the spread of the cane toad
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

People use science understanding and skills in their occupations and these have influenced the development of practices in areas of human activity (ACSHE121 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Consider consequences

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
  • Examine values

  • investigating how the knowledge and experience of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples are being used to inform scientific decisions, such as the care of Country/Place (OI.2, OI.9)

  • investigating everyday applications of physical separation techniques such as filtering, sorting waste materials, reducing pollution, extracting products from plants, separating blood products and cleaning up oil spills
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating how advances in science and technology have been applied to the treatment of water in industrial and household systems
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • researching the different scientific responses to the rabbit plagues in Australian agricultural areas
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that water management plays a role in areas such as farming, land management and gardening
  • investigating how separation techniques are used in the food and wine industries
  • considering how seasonal changes affect people in a variety of activities such as farming
  • considering how sports scientists apply knowledge of forces to improve performance

Questioning and predicting

Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS124 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas
  • Pose questions

  • working collaboratively to identify a problem to investigate
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions
    • Work collaboratively

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Think about thinking (metacognition)

  • recognising that the solution of some questions and problems requires consideration of social, cultural, economic or moral aspects rather than or as well as scientific investigation
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

  • using information and knowledge from previous investigations to predict the expected results from an investigation
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Planning and conducting

Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (ACSIS125 - Scootle )
Personal and Social Capability

Self-management
  • Work independently and show initiative

Social management
  • Work collaboratively
  • Make decisions

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in planning scientific investigations, and seeking guidance regarding culturally sensitive locations during fieldwork

  • consulting with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander land councils in planning scientific investigations, and seeking guidance regarding land access rights

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and organisations to conduct research investigations about ecosystems, ensuring mutually beneficial outcomes

  • working collaboratively to decide how to approach an investigation
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Make decisions
    • Work collaboratively

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

  • learning and applying specific skills and rules relating to the safe use of scientific equipment
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • identifying whether the use of their own observations and experiments or the use of other research materials is appropriate for their investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • developing strategies and techniques for effective research using secondary sources, including use of the internet
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange

    Investigating with ICT
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Measure and control variables, select equipment appropriate to the task and collect data with accuracy (ACSIS126 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

  • recognising the differences between controlled, dependent and independent variables
  • using a digital camera to record observations and compare images using information technologies
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Manage digital data
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • using specialised equipment to increase the accuracy of measurement within an investigation
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

Processing and analysing data and information

Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS129 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Investigating with ICT
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the production of calendars that demonstrate seasonal patterns and relationships using digital technologies

  • understanding different types of graphical and physical representation and considering their advantages and disadvantages
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • using spreadsheets to aid the presentation and simple analysis of data
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software
    • Manage digital data

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing the trends shown in collected data
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions based on evidence (ACSIS130 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

  • acknowledging, analysing and interpreting data and information from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ understandings of Earth’s systems and cycles

  • using diagrammatic representations to convey abstract ideas and to simplify complex situations
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • comparing and contrasting data from a number of sources in order to create a summary of collected data
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying data which provides evidence to support or negate the hypothesis under investigation
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • referring to relevant evidence when presenting conclusions drawn from an investigation
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

Evaluating

Reflect on scientific investigations including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identifying improvements (ACSIS131 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • discussing investigation methods with others to share ideas about the quality of the inquiry process
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions

  • identifying and considering indicators of the quality of the data when analysing results
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • suggesting improvements to inquiry methods based on experience
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to evaluate claims based on evidence (ACSIS132 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • using the evidence provided by scientific investigations to evaluate the claims or conclusions of their peers
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Communicating

Communicate ideas, findings and evidence based solutions to problems using scientific language, and representations, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS133 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Use spelling knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Communicating with ICT
  • Collaborate, share and exchange
  • Understand computer mediated communications

  • presenting the outcomes of research using effective forms of representation of data or ideas and scientific language that is appropriate for the target audience
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary
    • Use spelling knowledge

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Deliver presentations

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

  • using digital technologies to access information and to communicate and collaborate with others on and off site
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Communicate effectively
    • Work collaboratively

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Select and use hardware and software
    • Manage digital data

    Communicating with ICT
    • Collaborate, share and exchange
    • Understand computer mediated communications

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts


Year 7 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 7, students describe techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They represent and predict the effects of unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravity, on motion. They explain how the relative positions of Earth, the sun and moon affect phenomena on Earth. They analyse how the sustainable use of resources depends on the way they are formed and cycle through Earth systems. They predict the effect of human and environmental changes on interactions between organisms and classify and organise diverse organisms based on observable differences. Students describe situations where scientific knowledge from different science disciplines and diverse cultures has been used to solve a real-world problem. They explain possible implications of the solution for different groups in society.

Students identify questions that can be investigated scientifically. They plan fair experimental methods, identifying variables to be changed and measured. They select equipment that improves fairness and accuracy and describe how they considered safety. Students draw on evidence to support their conclusions. They summarise data from different sources, describe trends and refer to the quality of their data when suggesting improvements to their methods. They communicate their ideas, methods and findings using scientific language and appropriate representations.


Year 7 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 8

Year 8 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts.

In Year 8, students are introduced to cells as microscopic structures that explain macroscopic properties of living systems. They link form and function at a cellular level and explore the organisation of body systems in terms of flows of matter between interdependent organs. Similarly, they explore changes in matter at a particle level, and distinguish between chemical and physical change. They begin to classify different forms of energy, and describe the role of energy in causing change in systems, including the role of heat and kinetic energy in the rock cycle. Students use experimentation to isolate relationships between components in systems and explain these relationships through increasingly complex representations. They make predictions and propose explanations, drawing on evidence to support their views while considering other points of view.


Year 8 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Cells are the basic units of living things; they have specialised structures and functions (ACSSU149 - Scootle )
  • examining a variety of cells using a light microscope, by digital technology or by viewing a simulation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information

  • distinguishing plant cells from animal or fungal cells
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying structures within cells and describing their function
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • recognising that some organisms consist of a single cell
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that cells reproduce via cell division
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing mitosis as cell division for growth and repair
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs carrying out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (ACSSU150 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • identifying the organs and overall function of a system of a multicellular organism in supporting the life processes
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • describing the structure of each organ in a system and relating its function to the overall function of the system
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • examining the specialised cells and tissues involved in structure and function of particular organs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing similar systems in different organisms such as digestive systems in herbivores and carnivores, respiratory systems in fish and mammals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • distinguishing between asexual and sexual reproduction
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing reproductive systems of organisms
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Chemical sciences

Properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (ACSSU151 - Scootle )
  • explaining why a model for the structure of matter is needed
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • modelling the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • using the particle model to explain observed phenomena linking the energy of particles to temperature changes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described at a particle level (ACSSU152 - Scootle )
  • modelling the arrangement of particles in elements and compounds
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that elements and simple compounds can be represented by symbols and formulas
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • locating elements on the periodic table
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (ACSSU225 - Scootle )
  • investigating chemical reactions employed by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the production of substances such as quicklime, plaster, pigments, acids, salts and ethanol (OI.5)

  • identifying the differences between chemical and physical changes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • identifying evidence that a chemical change has taken place
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating simple reactions such as combining elements to make a compound
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that the chemical properties of a substance, for example its flammability and ability to corrode, will affect its use
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Earth and space sciences

Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153 - Scootle )
  • exploring the traditional geological knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples that is used in the selection of different rock types for different purposes (OI.2, OI.5)

  • representing the stages in the formation of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, including indications of timescales involved
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Operate with clocks, calendars and timetables

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • identifying a range of common rock types using a key based on observable physical and chemical properties
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • recognising that rocks are a collection of different minerals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering the role of forces and energy in the formation of different types of rocks and minerals
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that some rocks and minerals, such as ores, provide valuable resources
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Physical sciences

Energy appears in different forms, including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and energy transformations and transfers cause change within systems (ACSSU155 - Scootle )
  • investigating traditional fire-starting methods used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and their understanding of the transformation of energy (OI.5, OI.7)

  • recognising that kinetic energy is the energy possessed by moving bodies
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • recognising that potential energy is stored energy, such as gravitational, chemical and elastic energy
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating different forms of energy in terms of the effects they cause, such as gravitational potential causing objects to fall and heat energy transferred between materials that have a different temperature
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • recognising that heat energy is often produced as a by-product of energy transfer, such as brakes on a car and light globes
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • using flow diagrams to illustrate changes between different forms of energy
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Nature and development of science

Scientific knowledge has changed peoples’ understanding of the world and is refined as new evidence becomes available (ACSHE134 - Scootle )
  • investigating developments in the understanding of cells and how this knowledge has impacted on areas such as health and medicine
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • discovering how people’s understanding of the nature of matter has changed over time as evidence for particle theory has become available through developments in technology
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering how the idea of elements has developed over time as knowledge of the nature of matter has improved
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the development of the microscope and the impact it has had on the understanding of cell functions and division
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Science knowledge can develop through collaboration across the disciplines of science and the contributions of people from a range of cultures (ACSHE226 - Scootle )
  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples connect knowledge from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology and geology in the development of material culture (OI.3, OI.5)

  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples employ knowledge from the disciplines of chemistry, biology, physics and geology in their development of pigments and dyes (OI.3, OI.5)

  • investigating how knowledge of the location and extraction of mineral resources relies on expertise from across the disciplines of science
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • considering how advances in technology, combined with scientific understanding of the functioning of body systems, has enabled medical science to replace or repair organs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • researching the use of reproductive technologies and how developments in this field rely on scientific knowledge from different areas of science
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Use and influence of science

Solutions to contemporary issues that are found using science and technology, may impact on other areas of society and may involve ethical considerations (ACSHE135 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating use of sustainable technologies to deliver basic services in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and considering ethical implications of these (OI. 6)

  • investigating requirements and the design of systems for collecting and recycling household waste
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating strategies implemented to maintain part of the local environment, such as bushland, a beach, a lake, a desert or a shoreline
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Explore rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating how energy efficiency can reduce energy consumption
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • investigating the development of vehicles over time, including the application of science to contemporary designs of solar-powered vehicles
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • discussing ethical issues that arise from organ transplantation
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

People use science understanding and skills in their occupations and these have influenced the development of practices in areas of human activity (ACSHE136 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples used scientific understandings of complex ecological relationships to develop specific fire-based agricultural practices (OI.2, OI.3, OI.5)

  • describing how technologies have been applied to modern farming techniques to improve yields and sustainability
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values
    • Consider points of view
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

  • describing the impact of plant cloning techniques (asexual production) in agriculture such as horticulture, fruit production and vineyards
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the role of science in the development of technology important to the economies and communities of the Asia–Pacific regions, for example car manufacture, earthquake prediction and electronic optics
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • recognising the role of knowledge of the environment and ecosystems in a number of occupations
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • considering how engineers improve energy efficiency of a range of processes
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • recognising the role of knowledge of cells and cell divisions in the area of disease treatment and control
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • investigating how scientists have created new materials such as synthetic fibres, heat-resistant plastics and pharmaceuticals
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

Questioning and predicting

Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS139 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions
  • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • considering whether investigation using available resources is possible when identifying questions or problems to investigate
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • recognising that the solution of some questions and problems requires consideration of social, cultural, economic or moral aspects rather than or as well as scientific investigation
    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Intercultural Understanding

    Interacting and empathising with others
    • Consider and develop multiple perspectives

  • using information and knowledge from their own investigations and secondary sources to predict the expected results from an investigation
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

Planning and conducting

Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (ACSIS140 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Personal and Social Capability

Social management
  • Work collaboratively
  • Make decisions

Self-management
  • Work independently and show initiative

Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the planning of scientific investigations, including considerations of heritage sites and artefacts

  • working collaboratively to decide how to best approach an investigation
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

  • identifying any ethical considerations that may apply to the investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Consider alternatives

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context
    • Recognise ethical concepts

  • taking into consideration all aspects of fair testing, available equipment and safe investigation when planning investigations
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

Measure and control variables, select equipment appropriate to the task and collect data with accuracy (ACSIS141 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using measurement
  • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • using specialised equipment to increase the accuracy of measurement within an investigation
    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • identifying and explaining the differences between controlled, dependent and independent variables
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Processing and analysing data and information

Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships in data using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS144 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software

Investigating with ICT
  • Locate, generate and access data and information

Numeracy

Recognising and using patterns and relationships
  • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • describing measures of central tendency and identifying outliers for quantitative data
    Numeracy

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • explaining the strengths and limitations of representations such as physical models, diagrams and simulations in terms of the attributes of systems included or not included
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions based on evidence (ACSIS145 - Scootle )
Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Draw conclusions and design a course of action

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Organise and process information

Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • constructing tables, graphs, keys and models to represent relationships and trends in collected data
    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Interpreting statistical information
    • Interpret data displays

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • drawing conclusions based on a range of evidence including primary and secondary sources
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

Evaluating

Reflect on scientific investigations including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identifying improvements (ACSIS146 - Scootle )
Literacy

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Numeracy

Interpreting statistical information
  • Interpret data displays

  • suggesting improvements to investigation methods that would improve the accuracy of the data recorded
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • discussing investigation methods with others to share ideas about the quality of the inquiry process
    Personal and Social Capability

    Social management
    • Work collaboratively
    • Make decisions

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to evaluate claims based on evidence (ACSIS234 - Scootle )
Literacy

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Critical and Creative Thinking

Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
  • Evaluate procedures and outcomes

  • identifying the scientific evidence available to evaluate claims
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Evaluate procedures and outcomes
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • deciding whether or not to accept claims based on scientific evidence
    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Examine values

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions
    • Consider consequences

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • identifying where science has been used to make claims relating to products and practices
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Communicating

Communicate ideas, findings and evidence based solutions to problems using scientific language, and representations, using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS148 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary
  • Use spelling knowledge

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Deliver presentations
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Use language to interact with others
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text cohesion
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Grammar knowledge
  • Use knowledge of words and word groups
  • Use knowledge of sentence structures

Visual Knowledge
  • Understand how visual elements create meaning

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

Managing and operating ICT
  • Select and use hardware and software
  • Manage digital data

Creating with ICT
  • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

Communicating with ICT
  • Collaborate, share and exchange
  • Understand computer mediated communications

  • using digital technologies to construct a range of text types to present science ideas
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks
    • Generate ideas, plans and processes

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Manage digital data
    • Select and use hardware and software

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text structures
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

  • selecting and using appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas within a specified text type and for a specified audience

    Literacy

    Visual Knowledge
    • Understand how visual elements create meaning

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of words and word groups
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Text knowledge
    • Use knowledge of text cohesion
    • Use knowledge of text structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Deliver presentations
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Use spelling knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary


Year 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students compare physical and chemical changes and use the particle model to explain and predict the properties and behaviours of substances. They identify different forms of energy and describe how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They compare processes of rock formation, including the timescales involved. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. Students examine the different science knowledge used in occupations. They explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea and describe situations in which scientists collaborated to generate solutions to contemporary problems. They reflect on implications of these solutions for different groups in society.

Students identify and construct questions and problems that they can investigate scientifically. They consider safety and ethics when planning investigations, including designing field or experimental methods. They identify variables to be changed, measured and controlled. Students construct representations of their data to reveal and analyse patterns and trends, and use these when justifying their conclusions. They explain how modifications to methods could improve the quality of their data and apply their own scientific knowledge and investigation findings to evaluate claims made by others. They use appropriate language and representations to communicate science ideas, methods and findings in a range of text types.


Year 8 Work Sample Portfolios

Year 9

Year 9 Level Description

The science inquiry skills and science as a human endeavour strands are described across a two-year band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the achievement standard and also to the content of the science understanding strand for the relevant year level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-year period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching and learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

Incorporating the key ideas of science

Over Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures, how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts.

In Year 9, students consider the operation of systems at a range of scales. They explore ways in which the human body as a system responds to its external environment and the interdependencies between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. They are introduced to the notion of the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and how this system can change through nuclear decay. They learn that matter can be rearranged through chemical change and that these changes play an important role in many systems. They are introduced to the concept of the conservation of matter and begin to develop a more sophisticated view of energy transfer. They begin to apply their understanding of energy and forces to global systems such as continental movement.


Year 9 Content Descriptions

Biological sciences

Multi-cellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (ACSSU175 - Scootle )
  • describing how the requirements for life (for example oxygen, nutrients, water and removal of waste) are provided through the coordinated function of body systems such as the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous and excretory systems
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • explaining how body systems work together to maintain a functioning body using models, flow diagrams or simulations
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Creating with ICT
    • Generate solutions to challenges and learning area tasks

  • identifying responses using nervous and endocrine systems
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating the response of the body to changes as a result of the presence of micro-organisms
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating the effects on humans of exposure to electromagnetic radiations such as X-rays and microwaves
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (ACSSU176 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • investigating the interdependence of communities and the role of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in maintaining their environment (OI.2, OI.5)

  • exploring interactions between organisms such as predator/prey, parasites, competitors, pollinators and disease
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • examining factors that affect population sizes such as seasonal changes, destruction of habitats, introduced species
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

  • considering how energy flows into and out of an ecosystem via the pathways of food webs, and how it must be replaced to maintain the sustainability of the system
    • Sustainability
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating how ecosystems change as a result of events such as bushfires, drought and flooding
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical sciences

All matter is made of atoms that are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (ACSSU177 - Scootle )
  • investigating how radiocarbon and other dating methods have been used to establish that Aboriginal Peoples have been present on the Australian continent for more than 60,000 years (OI.6)

  • describing and modelling the structure of atoms in terms of the nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • comparing the mass and charge of protons, neutrons and electrons
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • describing in simple terms how alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation are released from unstable atoms
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (ACSSU178 - Scootle )
  • identifying reactants and products in chemical reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • modelling chemical reactions in terms of rearrangement of atoms
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing observed reactions using word equations
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering the role of energy in chemical reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • recognising that the conservation of mass in a chemical reaction can be demonstrated by simple chemical equations
    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (ACSSU179 - Scootle )
  • Sustainability
  • investigating how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples use fire-mediated chemical reactions to facilitate energy and nutrient transfer in ecosystems through the practice of firestick farming (OI.2, OI.5)

  • investigating reactions of acids with metals, bases, and carbonates
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating a range of different reactions to classify them as exothermic or endothermic
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

  • recognising the role of oxygen in combustion reactions and comparing combustion with other oxidation reactions
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • comparing respiration and photosynthesis and their role in biological processes
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • describing how the products of combustion reactions affect the environment
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

Earth and space sciences

The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement (ACSSU180 - Scootle )
Numeracy

Using spatial reasoning
  • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • recognising the major plates on a world map
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • modelling sea-floor spreading
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • relating the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activity to constructive and destructive plate boundaries
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • considering the role of heat energy and convection currents in the movement of tectonic plates
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • relating the extreme age and stability of a large part of the Australian continent to its plate tectonic history
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

Physical sciences

Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models (ACSSU182 - Scootle )
  • investigating the impact of material selection on the transfer of sound energy in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ traditional musical, hunting and communication instruments (OI.5)

  • investigating aspects of heat transfer and conservation in the design of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ bedding and clothing in the various climatic regions of Australia (OI.5, OI.7)

  • exploring how and why the movement of energy varies according to the medium through which it is transferred
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • discussing the wave and particle models and how they are useful for understanding aspects of phenomena
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
    • Use language to interact with others

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating the transfer of heat in terms of convection, conduction and radiation, and identifying situations in which each occurs
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • understanding the processes underlying convection and conduction in terms of the particle model
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating factors that affect the transfer of energy through an electric circuit
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • exploring the properties of waves, and situations where energy is transferred in the form of waves, such as sound and light
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Numeracy

    Recognising and using patterns and relationships
    • Recognise and use patterns and relationships

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Nature and development of science

Scientific understanding, including models and theories, is contestable and is refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE157 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reflect on ethical action

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating how fire research has evaluated the effects of traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples fire regimes and how these findings have influenced fire management policy throughout Australia (OI.2, OI.5, OI.9)

  • investigating the historical development of models of the structure of the atom
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating how the theory of plate tectonics developed, based on evidence from sea-floor spreading and occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activity
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how ideas about disease transmission have changed from medieval time to the present as knowledge has developed
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • investigating the work of scientists such as Ernest Rutherford, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie on radioactivity and subatomic particles
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • investigating how models can be used to predict the changes in populations due to environmental changes, such as the impact of flooding or fire on rabbit or kangaroo populations
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

Advances in scientific understanding often rely on technological advances and are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE158 - Scootle )
  • researching how technological advances in monitoring greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental factors have contributed to the reinstatement of traditional fire management practices as a strategy to reduce atmospheric pollution (OI.2, OI.5, OI.9)

  • considering how common properties of electromagnetic radiation relate to its uses, such as radar, medicine, mobile phone communications and microwave cooking
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

  • investigating technologies involved in the mapping of continental movement
    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Visualise 2D shapes and 3D objects

    Using measurement
    • Estimate and measure with metric units

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • considering how the development of imaging technologies have improved our understanding of the functions and interactions of body systems
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

Use and influence of science

People use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they accept claims, explanations or predictions, and advances in science can affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE160 - Scootle )
  • considering how the traditional ecological knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples is being reaffirmed by modern science and how this is generating new career opportunities in the field of restorative ecology (OI.2, OI.5, OI.9)

  • using knowledge of science to test claims made in advertising or expressed in the media

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • investigating how technologies using electromagnetic radiation are used in medicine, such as in the detection and treatment of cancer

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • investigating the use of nanotechnology in medicine, such as the delivery of pharmaceuticals

    Numeracy

    Estimating and calculating with whole numbers
    • Understand and use numbers in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • describing how science is used in the media to explain a natural event or justify actions

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

  • evaluating claims relating to products such as electrical devices, fuels, indigestion tablets

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • considering the impact of technological advances developed in Australia, such as the cochlear implant and bionic eye

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

  • considering how communication methods are influenced by new mobile technologies that rely on electromagnetic radiation

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

  • considering the impacts of human activity on an ecosystem from a range of different perspectives

    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • recognising aspects of science, engineering and technology within careers such as medicine, medical technology, telecommunications, biomechanical engineering, pharmacy and physiology

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

Values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (ACSHE228 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Understanding ethical concepts and issues
  • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • researching how Torres Strait Islander Peoples are at the forefront of the development of scientific measures to prevent the transfer of certain infectious diseases and pests to the Australian continent (OI.9)

  • considering how technologies have been developed to meet the increasing needs for mobile communication
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • investigating how scientific and technological advances have been applied to minimising pollution from industry
    • Sustainability
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Applying social and ethical protocols and practices when using ICT
    • Identify the impacts of ICT in society

  • considering how choices related to the use of fuels are influenced by environmental considerations
    • Sustainability
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Personal and Social Capability

    Social awareness
    • Appreciate diverse perspectives
    • Contribute to civil society

    Ethical Understanding

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

  • investigating the work of Australian scientists such as Fiona Wood and Marie Stoner on artificial skin
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

  • considering safe sound levels for humans and implications in the workplace and leisure activities
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • investigating contemporary science issues related to living in a Pacific country located near plate boundaries, for example Japan, Indonesia, New Zealand
    • Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas

    Ethical Understanding

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Consider points of view

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Intercultural Understanding

    Recognising culture and developing respect
    • Explore and compare cultural knowledge, beliefs and practices

Questioning and predicting

Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164 - Scootle )
Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts
  • Compose texts

Text knowledge
  • Use knowledge of text structures

Critical and Creative Thinking

Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
  • Pose questions

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

  • acknowledging and using information from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to hypothesise about fauna or flora distributions

  • collaborating with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to formulate questions and hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically regarding disrupted ecosystems

  • using internet research to identify problems that can be investigated
    Literacy

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Define and plan information searches
    • Select and evaluate data and information

    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences

  • evaluating information from secondary sources as part of the research process
    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Express opinion and point of view

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Analysing, synthesising and evaluating reasoning and procedures
    • Apply logic and reasoning

  • revising and refining research questions to target specific information and data collection or finding a solution to the specific problem identified
    Literacy

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Pose questions
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • developing ideas from students own or others' investigations and experiences to investigate further
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Transfer knowledge into new contexts

    Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
    • Imagine possibilities and connect ideas

Planning and conducting

Plan, select and use appropriate investigation types, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS165 - Scootle )
Ethical Understanding

Reasoning in decision making and actions
  • Reason and make ethical decisions

Literacy

Word Knowledge
  • Understand learning area vocabulary

Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
  • Comprehend texts
  • Interpret and analyse learning area texts
  • Navigate, read and view learning area texts

Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
  • Compose texts
  • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

Critical and Creative Thinking

Reflecting on thinking and processes
  • Reflect on processes

Generating ideas, possibilities and actions
  • Seek solutions and put ideas into action

  • acknowledging cultural heritage protection Acts as they relate to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in planning field investigations

  • explaining the choice of variables to be controlled, changed and measured in an investigation
    Numeracy

    Using fractions, decimals, percentages, ratios and rates
    • Apply proportional reasoning

    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • identifying the potential hazards of chemicals or biological materials used in experimental investigations
    Literacy

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

  • ensuring that any investigation involving or impacting on animals is justified, humane and considerate of each animal's needs
    Ethical Understanding

    Reasoning in decision making and actions
    • Consider consequences
    • Reflect on ethical action
    • Reason and make ethical decisions

    Exploring values, rights and responsibilities
    • Explore rights and responsibilities

    Understanding ethical concepts and issues
    • Recognise ethical concepts
    • Explore ethical concepts in context

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

  • using modelling and simulations, including using digital technology to investigate situations and events
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Capability

    Managing and operating ICT
    • Manage digital data

    Investigating with ICT
    • Locate, generate and access data and information
    • Select and evaluate data and information
    • Define and plan information searches

    Numeracy

    Using spatial reasoning
    • Interpret maps and diagrams

  • combining research using primary and secondary sources with students' own experimental investigation
    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Inquiring – identifying, exploring and organising information and ideas
    • Identify and clarify information and ideas
    • Organise and process information

    Literacy

    Grammar knowledge
    • Use knowledge of sentence structures

    Comprehending texts through listening, reading and viewing
    • Navigate, read and view learning area texts
    • Interpret and analyse learning area texts

    Composing texts through speaking, writing and creating
    • Compose spoken, written, visual and multimodal learning area texts

    Word Knowledge
    • Understand learning area vocabulary

  • considering how investigation methods and equipment may influence the reliability of collected data

    Critical and Creative Thinking

    Reflecting on thinking and processes
    • Reflect on processes

Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to collect and record data systematically and accurately (ACSIS166 - Scootle )